Iterated function systems: Koch curve

The Koch curve is a mathematical curve and one of the earliest fractal curves to have been described, appearing in a 1904 paper by the Swedish mathematician Helge von Koch.

Construction begins by taking a straight line and dividing it into three equal segments.  The middle segment is then replaced by two sides of an equilateral triangle with sides equal to the segment that was replaced.  This process is then repeated on each new segment.

The curve in the image was created in Python Turtle Graphics and follows the Lindenmayer system or L-system where symbols in the model refer to elements of the drawing.

• Variables : F
• Constants : + –
• Axiom : F
• Rules : F -> F+F–F+F
• Angle : 60 degrees

Where by ‘F’ means draw forward, ‘+’ means turn left 60 degrees and ‘-‘ means turn right 60 degrees.

Variants

Variations of the curve include using right angles and the following construction.

• Axiom : F
• Rules : F -> F+F-F-F+F

Koch snowflake

Placing three copies of the Koch curve around the outside of an equilateral triangle forms the boundary of the Koch snowflake, and can be constructed using the following L-system.

• Axiom : F++F++F
• Rules : F -> F-F++F-F
• Angle : 60 degrees